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Redan medlem Bli medlem! Logga in Inget konto? This would require a massive object, which would also explain the high luminosities.
However a star of sufficient mass to produce the measured redshift would be unstable and in excess of the Hayashi limit. One strong argument against them was that they implied energies that were far in excess of known energy conversion processes, including nuclear fusion.
There were some suggestions that quasars were made of some hitherto unknown form of stable antimatter regions and that this might account for their brightness.
The uncertainty was such that even as late as , it was stated that "one of the few statements [about Active Galactic Nuclei] to command general agreement has been that the power supply is primarily gravitational",  with the cosmological origin of the redshift being taken as given.
Eventually, starting from about the s, many lines of evidence including the first X-Ray space observatories , knowledge of black holes and modern models of cosmology gradually demonstrated that the quasar redshifts are genuine, and due to the expansion of space , that quasars are in fact as powerful and as distant as Schmidt and some other astronomers had suggested, and that their energy source is matter from an accretion disc falling onto a supermassive black hole.
This model also fits well with other observations that suggest many or even most galaxies have a massive central black hole. It would also explain why quasars are more common in the early universe: The accretion disc energy-production mechanism was finally modeled in the s, and black holes were also directly detected including evidence showing that supermassive black holes could be found at the centers of our own and many other galaxies , which resolved the concern that quasars were too luminous to be a result of very distant objects or that a suitable mechanism could not be confirmed to exist in nature.
By it was "well accepted" that this was the correct explanation for quasars,  and the cosmological distance and energy output of quasars was accepted by almost all researchers.
Hence the name 'QSO' quasi-stellar object is used in addition to "quasar" to refer to these objects, including the 'radio-loud' and the 'radio-quiet' classes.
The discovery of the quasar had large implications for the field of astronomy in the s, including drawing physics and astronomy closer together.
It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light which reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.
Quasars inhabit the center of active galaxies, and are among the most luminous, powerful, and energetic objects known in the universe, emitting up to a thousand times the energy output of the Milky Way , which contains — billion stars.
This radiation is emitted across the electromagnetic spectrum, almost uniformly, from X-rays to the far-infrared with a peak in the ultraviolet-optical bands, with some quasars also being strong sources of radio emission and of gamma-rays.
With high-resolution imaging from ground-based telescopes and the Hubble Space Telescope , the "host galaxies" surrounding the quasars have been detected in some cases.
Most quasars, with the exception of 3C whose average apparent magnitude is Quasars are believed - and in many cases confirmed - to be powered by accretion of material into supermassive black holes in the nuclei of distant galaxies, as suggested in by Edwin Salpeter and Yakov Zel'dovich .
Light and other radiation cannot escape from within the event horizon of a black hole, but the energy produced by a quasar is generated outside the black hole, by gravitational stresses and immense friction within the material nearest to the black hole, as it orbits and falls inward.
Central masses of 10 5 to 10 9 solar masses have been measured in quasars by using reverberation mapping. Several dozen nearby large galaxies, including our own Milky Way galaxy, that do not have an active center and do not show any activity similar to a quasar, are confirmed to contain a similar supermassive black hole in their nuclei galactic center.
Thus it is now thought that all large galaxies have a black hole of this kind, but only a small fraction have sufficient matter in the right kind of orbit at their center to become active and power radiation in such a way to be seen as quasars.
This also explains why quasars were more common in the early universe, as this energy production ends when the supermassive black hole consumes all of the gas and dust near it.
This means that it is possible that most galaxies, including the Milky Way, have gone through an active stage, appearing as a quasar or some other class of active galaxy that depended on the black hole mass and the accretion rate, and are now quiescent because they lack a supply of matter to feed into their central black holes to generate radiation.
The matter accreting onto the black hole is unlikely to fall directly in, but will have some angular momentum around the black hole that will cause the matter to collect into an accretion disc.
Quasars may also be ignited or re-ignited when normal galaxies merge and the black hole is infused with a fresh source of matter. In fact, it has been suggested that a quasar could form when the Andromeda Galaxy collides with our own Milky Way galaxy in approximately 3—5 billion years.
In the s, unified models were developed in which quasars were classified as a particular kind of active galaxy , and a consensus emerged that in many cases it is simply the viewing angle that distinguishes them from other active galaxies, such as blazars and radio galaxies.
More than , quasars are known, most from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. All observed quasar spectra have redshifts between 0.
Applying Hubble's law to these redshifts, it can be shown that they are between million  and Because of the great distances to the farthest quasars and the finite velocity of light, they and their surrounding space appear as they existed in the very early universe.
The power of quasars originates from supermassive black holes that are believed to exist at the core of most galaxies.
The Doppler shifts of stars near the cores of galaxies indicate that they are rotating around tremendous masses with very steep gravity gradients, suggesting black holes.
Although quasars appear faint when viewed from Earth, they are visible from extreme distances, being the most luminous objects in the known universe.
It has an average apparent magnitude of In a universe containing hundreds of billions of galaxies, most of which had active nuclei billions of years ago but only seen today, it is statistically certain that thousands of energy jets should be pointed toward the Earth, some more directly than others.
In many cases it is likely that the brighter the quasar, the more directly its jet is aimed at the Earth. Such quasars are called blazars. Quasars were much more common in the early universe than they are today.
This discovery by Maarten Schmidt in was early strong evidence against Steady State cosmology and in favor of the Big Bang cosmology.
Quasars show the locations where massive black holes are growing rapidly via accretion. These black holes grow in step with the mass of stars in their host galaxy in a way not understood at present.
One idea is that jets, radiation and winds created by the quasars, shut down the formation of new stars in the host galaxy, a process called 'feedback'.
The jets that produce strong radio emission in some quasars at the centers of clusters of galaxies are known to have enough power to prevent the hot gas in those clusters from cooling and falling onto the central galaxy.
Quasars' luminosities are variable, with time scales that range from months to hours. This means that quasars generate and emit their energy from a very small region, since each part of the quasar would have to be in contact with other parts on such a time scale as to allow the coordination of the luminosity variations.
This would mean that a quasar varying on a time scale of a few weeks cannot be larger than a few light-weeks across.
The emission of large amounts of power from a small region requires a power source far more efficient than the nuclear fusion that powers stars.
Stellar explosions such as supernovas and gamma-ray bursts , and direct matter - antimatter annihilation, can also produce very high power output, but supernovae only last for days, and the universe does not appear to have had large amounts of antimatter at the relevant times.
Since quasars exhibit all the properties common to other active galaxies such as Seyfert galaxies , the emission from quasars can be readily compared to those of smaller active galaxies powered by smaller supermassive black holes.
The brightest known quasars devour solar masses of material every year. The largest known is estimated to consume matter equivalent to Earths per minute.
Quasar luminosities can vary considerably over time, depending on their surroundings. Since it is difficult to fuel quasars for many billions of years, after a quasar finishes accreting the surrounding gas and dust, it becomes an ordinary galaxy.
Radiation from quasars is partially 'nonthermal' i. Extremely high energies might be explained by several mechanisms see Fermi acceleration and Centrifugal mechanism of acceleration.
Quasars can be detected over the entire observable electromagnetic spectrum including radio , infrared , visible light , ultraviolet , X-ray and even gamma rays.
Most quasars are brightest in their rest-frame near-ultraviolet wavelength of A minority of quasars show strong radio emission, which is generated by jets of matter moving close to the speed of light.
When viewed downward, these appear as blazars and often have regions that seem to move away from the center faster than the speed of light superluminal expansion.
This is an optical illusion due to the properties of special relativity. Quasar redshifts are measured from the strong spectral lines that dominate their visible and ultraviolet emission spectra.
These lines are brighter than the continuous spectrum. They can also "program" Quasars' quantum energy to register and react to certain preset conditions.
For instance, at one time Vaughn had the Earth surrounded with an invisible lattice-work of energy that was designed to act as a global alert system against potential extraterrestrial threats.
The energy field could detect any surges of exotic energy emanating from the planet's surface and any object larger than a micrometeorite passing through it; in either case, the field would react by transmitting an alert signal to the Quantum Bands.
Vaughn has had a direct link to Eon and later Epoch through the bands, which provides ready access to their omniscience.
Phyla-Vell discovers that the bands contain a finite amount of energy which will drain away if they are isolated from their power source as yet unexplained and that they also remain linked in some way to their former users.
Neutron possesses superhuman strength, can lift seventy tons, and is extremely durable. He demonstrates the ability to siphon energy from Quasar's constructs through physical contact, weakening them sufficiently that his strength can easily shatter them.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Quantum bands. Darkhawk Gyre Talon Razor. Ikon Rom the Spaceknight Starshine. Cosmic entities Knowhere Planets.
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